The kidneys are two organs located deep in the abdomen at about the level of the lowest ribs. By means of more than a million tiny, separate filters, they filter out and remove from the blood the urea and other waste materials it contains. These they excrete in the urine. They also regulate the volume of fluid and the concentration of minerals in the body. When a person drinks a large amount of fluid, the kidneys excrete the excess, but in hot weather, when extra fluid is lost via sweat, the kidneys excrete smaller amounts of urine.

Your kidneys do not need to be ‘flushed’ or ‘stimulated’ or any of the things that patent medicines claim to do. Trouble in the kidneys can cause pain in the lower back, and this symptom, together with changes in the urine, should always be reported to a doctor.

Some of the causes of kidney stones (renal calculi) are beyond our control, but preventing or curing infections will help to keep them from forming. Another thing you can do to prevent the formation of stones is to see that you drink sufficient water to have an adequate flow of urine.


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